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New insights into this problem might be gained from analyses of markers from different genomes that consider fossil evidence within Poaceae as well as in distant lineages.

Branch lengths are shown for the different markers.

Many questions in evolutionary biology require an estimate of divergence times but, for groups with a sparse fossil record, such estimates rely heavily on molecular dating methods. The incongruence between large-scale phylogenetic analyses including a few representatives of Poaceae and densely sampled analyses focused on Poaceae likely results from important variation in rates of evolution between grasses and other angiosperms (Gaut et al. We performed divergence time analyses of different data sets of plastid and nuclear genetic markers, sampling broadly from across all angiosperms.

The accuracy of these methods depends on both an adequate underlying model and the appropriate implementation of fossil evidence as calibration points. The ages obtained for the major clades of grasses by different methods and genetic markers were compared with the known fossil record.

Several sophisticated methods are now available that consider potential variation in evolutionary rates across the phylogeny by implementing so-called relaxed molecular clocks (Kishino et al. Only 155 grasses from the original data set were selected as follows: taxa were first discarded if the sequences were complete for Phylograms for plastid and nuclear markers.

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In particular, an acceleration of evolutionary rates at the base of Poaceae followed by a deceleration in the descendants strongly biases methods that assume an autocorrelation of rates. Meanwhile, molecular dating analyses of angiosperms (flowering plants) are abundant in recent literature and, despite differences in methodology, independent estimates converge on a date for the split between the two major groups of flowering plants (eudicots and monocots) between roughly 130 and 170 Ma (Bell et al. The conflicts between different sets of calibration points, methods and genomes highlight the importance of considering multiple sources of evidence when attempting to estimate evolutionary events that happened in distant geological time.

This problem can be circumvented by using markers that have lower rate variation, and we show that phylogenetic markers extracted from complete nuclear genomes can be a useful complement to the more commonly used plastid markers. In this study, we explore the effect of variation in rates of mutation, fossil placement, and model assumptions on divergence time estimation, with the goal of inferring the age of the grasses (Poaceae; monocots). The vast majority of grass species belongs to two large sister groups referred to as BEP and PACMAD clades (Grass Phylogeny Working Group II 2012). Dating analyses were first conducted on DNA regions from the plastid genome, which are the most frequently used in plant phylogenetics and are available for a large number of taxa (Soltis et al. We selected three genes that are variable enough to reconstruct relationships within lineages but are also sufficiently conserved to be compared among distantly related angiosperms (Grass Phylogeny Working Group II 2012).

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