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Schematic of endocytosis and exocytosis patterns of nanoparticles.

Nanoparticles enter the cell via four types of pathway: clathrin/caveolar-mediated endocytosis, phagocytosis, macropinocytosis, and pinocytosis.

However, these drug delivery nanosystems have shown some limitations regarding the toxicity of the nanoscale materials in the body.

In order to reduce their toxicity, it is crucial to study endocytosis, exocytosis, and clearance mechanisms for nanoparticles released from the nanoparticle–drug conjugates.

The nanoparticle surface can be modified with various targeting molecules (eg, antibody, peptide, aptamer, etc) in order to achieve efficient targeting to disease sites.

Recently, many scientists have begun to investigate the effects of different sizes, shapes, and surface chemistries on endocytosis, toxicity, and gene regulation.

Most of the nanoparticles are first coated with the serum proteins and then met with the plasma membrane of cells.

Nanoparticles exit the cell via three types of pathway: lysosome secretion, vesicle-related secretion, and non-vesicle-related secretion.

Nanoparticle stability Nanoparticles have been widely used in the fields of drug delivery and bioimaging because their size, shape, and surface properties can be precisely engineered for specific diseases.

The DLS technique has been the most widely used to monitor size change because it directly measures hydrodynamic sizes of protein-coated nanoparticles in the biological solution with nanometer precision.

Furthermore, the zeta potentials of protein-coated nanoparticles mostly appeared as a negative surface charge although the nanoparticles had different original surface chemistries.

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