Dating the sphinx construction
Archaeologists and geologists working in the region have found evidence, through patterns of erosion, fossilized plant and animal material, and artifacts, that the area some 8,000 years ago was once quite fertile and lush with vegetation.
Water was abundant and underground aquifers are still, as evidenced by the difficulties Zahi Hawass and his team had in exploring the Osiris Shaft of the Great Pyramid in 1999 CE due to the high water table. 15,000 BCE, and though it became less so in time, the area was still quite fertile at the time of the 4th Dynasty. 2670 BCE) had already built his famous Step Pyramid and complex at Saqqara while, at Giza, there were only mastaba tombs. 2613-2589 BCE) perfected the art of pyramid building through his work on the Meidum Pyramid, Bent Pyramid, and Red Pyramid.
The theory goes that, in the process of building Khafre's pyramid, workers uncovered a large mass of rock considered unsuitable for the pyramid complex and carved the statue from it.
Historians Bob Brier and Hoyt Hobbs comment on this: Khafre's pyramid [was faced with a] gleaming casing of white limestone, transported by boats from quarries across the Nile [and] laid over interior limestone blocks which were cut from the surrounding Giza site.
The statue was never known as 'the sphinx' by the ancient Egyptians.
Amenhotep II's son, prince Thutmose, fell asleep one night near the Sphinx and had a dream in which the statue spoke to him complaining of its state and how the sand pressed upon it.A 'cult' in ancient Egypt should be understood along the lines of a sect of a religious movement in the present day; not a cult as a modern reader understands that term.This was a solar cult which venerated Horus in his role as a sky god.The Great Sphinx of Giza is the most instantly recognizable statue associated with ancient Egypt and among the most famous in the world.The sculpture, of a recumbent lion with the head of an Egyptian king, was carved out of limestone on the Giza plateau probably in the reign of the king Khafre (2558-2532 BCE) during the period of the Old Kingdom of Egypt (c.