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Four of these women were also members of the winning team in the 4x100 meters relay at the same games - Fanny Blankers-Koen (1948), Betty Cuthbert (1956), Wilma Rudolph (1960), and Florence Griffith-Joyner (1988).
Fanny Blankers-Koen is the only one of these women to win four gold medals at the same games by winning the 80 metres hurdles in 1948.
Among the competing nations, the United States has had the most success in this event, having won sixteen golds in the men's race and nine in the women's race.
The 100 m is usually held at the beginning of the Olympic athletics programme as this allows athletes to compete in other events held later at the games – many 100 m athletes also compete in the 200 metres and the 4×100 metres relay events.
Athletes are seeded by past performance to ensure an even balance of quality across the heats and allow the best runners to progress to the later stages.
The Olympic 100 metres competitions are carried out under standard international rules, as set by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF).
The races are segregated by gender, with one for men and one for women.